Dr Anane is currently a member of the Parliament of Ghana. He has served in the Parliament of Ghana from January 1997 to the present.  During the period he has served as the Ranking Member for Food and Agriculture (1997 - 2001), Minister for Health (2001), Minister for the Transportation sector (2002 - January 2009) and as the Ranking Member for Health (2009 to Present).

He is also currently the Vice Chairman of the Steering Committee of the Network of the African Parliamentary Committees on Health. Dr. Anane is a  founding member of FCHC.

As the Minister for Health, he had oversight responsibility of the nation's health sector. Under his watch he initiated the following:

1) Establishment and the Legislation of the National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana, 
2) Establishment of the College of Physicians & Surgeons, 
3) Establishment of National Ambulance Service, 
4) HIV Mother-to-Child-Transmission intervention program,
5) Policy for HIV treatment in Ghana.

He also served as the Minister of Transportation of Ghana between 2002 to 2009. He had oversight responsibility of the nations transportation Sector and Chaired the Road Fund Board of Ghana. Under his watch, there was doubling of the length of road network in Ghana, from thirty four thousand (34,000) kilometers to sixty five thousand (65,000) kilometers with an associated marked improvement in the over-all Road Condition Mix and a remarkable improvement in the Road Traffic Accident Fatality Rate.

Transportation safety by road was markedly improved. A modernizing Road Traffic Law was passed in 2004. The defunct national bus company, Omnibus Services Authority (OSA) was liquidated and a new bus company with private sector participation, the Metro Mass Transit  (MMT) Company was established in 2003.

Other acts he piloted through Cabinet and Parliament include;
- Ghana Maritime Authority Act,2002
- Ghana Shipping Act, 2003
- Ghana Civil Aviation Authority Act, 2004 (from which gave birth the Airports Company of Ghana). 

He collaborated with his colleagues and led to prepare and complete a 'National Transport Policy'  for Ghana by 2008. 

Dr. Anane served as a Medical Officer and later as an Obstetrician and a Gynecologist at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital from 1984 -1996. He received his education at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Harvard School of Public Health, John F Kennedy School of Government, Galilee International Management Institute.

In July 2008, in recognition of his services to the people of Ghana, a national award, the 'Companion of The Order Of The Volta', was conferred on him by His Excellency John Agyekum Kufuor, the then President of the Republic of Ghana.